"Freedom ends here," the graffiti proclaim in large block letters on the Berlin wall. In other patches, the message is wry: "Socialist paradise: 100 meters." "Jump over and join the party."
The scribblings are a touch of humanity on the impersonal stretch of concrete that cuts through the heart of Berlin. So are the wreathes and crosses commemorating lives lost trying to cross the perilous, 103-mile obstacle course to the West.
But the wall, created 20 years ago today, is an accepted eyesore in the landscape of the divided city. West Berlin's 2 million inhabitants largely cope with the barrier the way commuters bear up to expressway detours: Some are resigned, others cynical, but most view it as the natural consequence of grim political reality.
"Ideologically, I used to want the wall to come down," says a medical student in West Berlin. "But now I don't know. Many young people just don't consider reunification a possibility anymore. I am afraid that if the wall was broken down, we would have nothing in common with the Berliners on the other side. I have lots of chances to go there, but I never do."
The wall is old enough that a generation of Germans has grown up knowing nothing else. "The younger generation born after '61 will have great difficulties communicating with East German youth," said Conrad Schumann, who as a young border guard fled to the West just two days after the first barrier was erected. His escape was captured in a now-famous photograph showing him bounding over barbed wire with a rifle slung over his shoulder.
Schumann notes that attitudes have changed since he made his bold step. "When I watch people looking at the wall now, I see that they just walk by and accept it. When I stand in front of it, I think what a crazy thing it was to have put up the wall."
But in August 1961 the building of the wall had its practical as well as ideological purpose. With a flood of refugees, especially skilled young people, leaving East Germany each day, the authorities created an artificial frontier to stem the brain drain.