The Senate Budget Committee voted to sharply increase spending for education and job training. The committee voted to spend $27 billion for education and training in 1984, nearly 7 percent above President Reagan's proposals. Mr. Reagan wanted to spend for the President in the Republican-controlled committee, which is drafting an alternate budget. The major rejection came last week in the slicing of proposed growth in defense spending from 10 percent to 5 percent. But the committee has approved the entire Reagan request of $12.7 billion to carry out foreign-affairs functions.