The unbanning of the African National Congress and the release of ANC leader Nelson Mandela in 1990 presaged the beginning of the end of South Africa's 40-year policy of racial segregation, known as apartheid. But problems remain. Under the banner of "power sharing," the country's white-ruled government seeks to retain extensive control over a country that is 80 percent black. Its support for anti-ANC groups has contributed to political violence. Bush and Clinton disagree on the best means to foster peac eful change and to nudge South Africa further in the direction of majority rule. BUSH
Opposes the use of economic sanctions to do the job, saying the US needs to remain economically engaged with South Africa. Says this Republican policy of "constructive engagement" has helped foster the economic growth that, in turn, has helped bring about the changes that have taken place so far. Insists that slowing economic growth means slowing political change. Believes existing sanctions levied by some US state and local governments against South Africa risk hurting blacks more than whites, producing
higher unemployment and jeopardizing social services for blacks. CLINTON
Calls for maintaining state and local economic sanctions against South Africa until there is an "irreversible, full, and fair accommodation with the black majority to create a democratic government." Bases the need for sanctions on moral grounds: that sanctions send a strong message to the Pretoria government of the US's commitment to democracy and human rights. Points to other countries, like Iraq and Cuba, where the US has used sanctions to protest the policies of a foreign government.