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1652: Dutch reach Cape.

1795: First British occupation of Cape.

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1806: Second British Occupation.

1836: Dutch-descended Afrikaners trek north to evade British rule.

1882: Boers proclaim South African Republic in Transvaal Province.

1899: British annex Transvaal and Orange Free State provinces. Anglo-Boer war erupts.

1902: Boers are defeated.

1910: Union of South Africa is founded, uniting two British provinces and two Boer Republics. Britain fails to secure rights for blacks.

1912: African National Congress is founded.

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1948: National Party wins election, implements apartheid.

1960: ANC is banned. Indirect African representation in parliament is abolished.

1961: South Africa quits British Commonwealth.

1964: Nelson Mandela and ANC colleagues are jailed.

1984: Parliamentary representation is extended to mixed-race and Indian minorities.

1990: President Frederik de Klerk legalizes political dissent and frees Mandela.

1991: Apartheid laws are scrapped. Talks begin.

Dec. 17, 1993: Parties agree to plan for transition to democracy.

April 27, 1994: First nonracial ballot. Coalition government is established.

October 1994: Elections for local governments.

1999: Elections for unqualified majority rule.

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