Many employees leaving a company are rolling over pension money into individual retirement accounts
THEY were started in the 1970s, slapped with restrictions in the '80s, but are still growing strong today. Individual retirement accounts (IRAs) remain a top choice of people looking for a safe, often tax-deferred spot for their money. They are also perfect for Americans who lose jobs from corporate downsizing or change jobs and need a place to put their pension dollars.
Even if people do not qualify for all the advantages of an IRA - such as gaining an immediate tax deduction for the amount of their contribution - they can still defer paying taxes on their cumulative interest and dividend earnings until earnings are withdrawn. That can be years later.
''IRAs remain a very good investment for individuals looking for the safety of their retirement income or who want greater control over their retirement dollars,'' says Cindy Hounsell, director of the women's pension program for the Pension Rights Center, a public advocacy group in Washington.
Today, IRAs continue to post steady asset gains, with the total value of IRA plans now exceeding $1 trillion. This growth is occurring despite legislative changes in 1986 that took away the tax deduction on IRAs for most middle-class Americans. Congress was worried that Americans were removing billions of dollars from tax rolls through IRAs.
Originally created by Congress in 1974, IRAs were designed to be a retirement-income vehicle for wage-earners. A person opening an IRA could contribute up to $2,000 annually, thus reducing the gross income for that tax year, while also deferring taxes on interest and dividend earnings until he or she actually withdrew their retirement dollars. In most cases, the withdrawals would come after retirement, or, at the earliest, after the person reached age 59-1/2. That is still the case today.
But as a result of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, contributions into IRA plans fell from $38 billion in new money in 1986, to $15 billion in 1987, notes Katherine Rabon-Summers, director of industry studies for the Investment Company Institute, a mutual-fund trade group in Washington. In recent years, the level has been around $10 billion annually.
In the late '80s, however, the losses were offset when more and more Americans booted out of jobs during corporate downsizing began taking lump-sum pension distributions, such as from defined-contribution plans - including 401(k)s - and putting them into IRAs.