Some work out of trailers on shoestring budgets. Others pass around blueprints for multimillion-dollar building projects.
Despite such differences, all the charter-school activists meeting for their first national conference last week insisted that they were part of the most important educational reform of the 1990s.
But a final report card is not yet in on the charter experiment, and some activists worry that its successes - and failures - could prompt a backlash.
"Phoenix public schools are losing about $5,000 for every student that chooses to come to my school. It's beginning to hurt, and I'm afraid that there's a backlash coming," says Patty Shaw, director of the Phoenix-based Intelli-School, a charter school for at-risk teens.
Charter schools are publicly funded, and many are exempt from regulations governing other public schools, including collective-bargaining agreements with unions. They aim to innovate and offer parents a choice.
"We are a teacher's license to dream," says Irene Sumida, director of the Fenton Avenue Charter School in Lake View Terrace, Calif. With an annual budget of $7.4 million and a Power Mac on every fifth-grader's desk, Fenton is a textbook case for what new ideas and resources can do in tough neighborhoods.
"Eighty percent of our students are Hispanic, 15 percent are African-American, and 60 percent have limited English proficiency. We have a 99 percent attendance rate, and last May we were named one of California's distinguished schools," she adds. Services include literacy training for parents, parenting courses for students, and, when needed, a free ride to court.
"For far too long this nation has tolerated giving young people, especially in our large cities, a third-class education. This is why ... we are so encouraged by the work you do," Education Secretary Richard Riley told some 800 activists in Washington on Nov. 4.
More funds from Congress