Hoped-for space garden already yields fruit
Not since the days of Tang has NASA created more products for consumers.
Astronauts sitting down to fresh salads. Space-station crew members crunching into veggies, rather than sucking "essence of broccoli" from a foil-wrapped pack.
NASA's vision of a garden of space-grown delights is moving closer to harvest this week, when the shuttle Atlantis makes its expected return tomorrow with a new crop - weeds.
Never mind that the plants won't survive the return flight. Or that they don't taste very good. While it still may take years before an astronaut bites into a juicy spear of asparagus, blasting plants into space is already yielding a cornucopia of earthbound products - from new perfume to light-emitting diodes that treat cancer.
Perhaps not since the early years of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), when orange-flavored Tang burst onto store shelves, has space-borne food and plant research delivered such diverse consumer benefits.
Consider the "space rose." When researchers sent a rose into space in 1998, they expected a shift in scent, because gravity would no longer hold plant oils in the stem. Instead, scientists discovered an entirely new aroma, never smelled on earth.
International Flavors & Fragrances, a New York company that partnered with the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), recreated the fragrance. The scent now forms part of $19-an-ounce Zen perfume.
WCSAR is one of 17 commercial space centers that partner with corporations to develop new products. The reasons are partly political: Congress looks far more likely to spend money exploring space if NASA can show benefits back on earth.
There are also scientific reasons. "The effects of gravity create a huge curtain that blocks our view of what happens at a small scale," says Blake Powers, director of outreach for NASA's Space Product Development Program. Weightlessness gives researchers insights they can translate into new processes and products.
Like a better refrigerator. When commercial growers store their harvest, they extend the shelf life of their fruits and vegetables by getting rid of the ripening agent they naturally emit. But none of those methods work in space.