A Baltic province's story, in one man's life
German Königsberg, later Russian Kaliningrad, would be isolated again in the EU's expansion east by 2004.
Pieter Eugen was born and raised in one country, lived most of his adult life in a second, and is eking out a pensioner's existence in a third. Yet he has lived his entire life 74 years in the same town.
Mr. Eugen's life is not a riddle, but one man's piece of a 20th-century tragedy. He is one of the original German inhabitants of the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad, an area where changes on the map have left people stranded.
Now history is eerily repeating itself. When the European Union makes its planned expansion east by 2004, Kaliningrad will be encircled by the new superstate, and cut off from Russia. How Europe and Russia negotiate this situation will be a test case for integration and could offer an indication of Moscow's future relations with the West.
In the past, the area's isolation brought grim consequences. In Eugen's boyhood, this territory was East Prussia, an ancient German region cut off from the main body of Germany by the harsh terms of the Versailles Treaty that ended World War I. It's capital, Königsberg, was considered one of Europe's loveliest cities, a cradle of German culture and lifelong home of the philosopher Immanuel Kant. But in the 1930s, the region became a bastion of Naziism. Adolf Hitler railed against East Prussia's isolation and demanded that neighboring Poland cede territory to create a "corridor" to reunite the province with its fatherland. The issue became one of the causes of World War II.
"We were very proud of our führer, because he spoke on our behalf," says Eugen. "Of course, we didn't understand then what a disaster he would lead us into." Just 17 when the war ended, Eugen says he "somehow escaped" serving with the German forces. He remembers the night early 1945 when British RAF planes firebombed the leafy boulevards, spired churches, and medieval university of Königsberg into rubble. Soon the Red Army moved in and finished demolishing the old town. Under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, the city's ancient castle, where Hitler put finishing touches on Barbarossa his campaign against the USSR was dynamited to make room for a still-unfinished massive concrete Palace of Soviets.
The USSR seized the territory, with Allied consent, after World War II. In 1947 Moscow expelled almost all the German inhabitants, replaced them with Soviet settlers, and turned the territory into a heavily fortified military base, closed to outside visitors until 1991. The city and region were renamed Kaliningrad, to honor the Stalin-era Soviet president.