The 1990s boom altered map of poverty, boosting opportunities for many.
During the 1970s and '80s, America's poorest citizens lived ever more isolated lives. They were increasingly shunted into ghettoized neighborhoods where basic necessities, like good grocery stores and decent schools, were further and further out of reach.
The 1990s began to change that. The decade-long economic boom - along with welfare reform and other shifts - helped spur some 2.5 million people to leave poor neighborhoods and begin to connect with the economic and social mainstream, a study released Monday finds.
The movement of America's poor into mixed-income areas was most pronounced in the Midwest and South, and among African-Americans. It has big implications for their ability to get good jobs - and for their kids to go to good schools. Ultimately it means better opportunities to leave poverty behind.
For Chicago resident Latanja Williams it means finally getting some peace, quiet, and elbow room. After years in the notoriously violent and cramped Cabrini-Green housing project, last week this high-energy mother of five moved into a five-bedroom house on a tree-lined street on Chicago's South Side. Her new neighborhood isn't paradise: There's a drug den two blocks away, and she still shops at a distant grocery store because the nearby one is "lacking." But in her new house, she says, "Everyone has his or her space. The kids aren't on top of each other."
Her experience underscores one of the biggest implications of this demographic shift: new hope for America's poorest kids. "Because of our geographically based school system, poor kids were concentrated in bad schools. They brought to school all the reasons why their parents were poor" - such as low literacy skills and lack of good role models - and reinforced those with other kids, says Paul Jargowsky. He is the author of "Stunning Progress, Hidden Problems," the report released Monday by the Brookings Institution in Washington, which uses census data.
Thomas Kingsley, author of a related new study by the Urban Institute, highlights a broader implication: During the 1970s and '80s the "culture of poverty" theory posited that the poor may be fundamentally incapable of connecting with broader society. Now, the idea that they can change - and that they are rational actors who are part of the economic and cultural marketplace - may gain ground.