New research helps better pinpoint causes of water pollution at US beaches.
Each year tens of millions of people plop onto America's beaches to bask and bake in the sun. But the question they increasingly face is: "Do I dare go into the water?"
Not because it's too cold or because they fear an encounter with "Jaws," but because it might just be too dirty.
• Over the past decade, signs like "Danger. Beach Closed" have become more common as the number of beach closings and water-quality advisories has increased more than fourfold.
• Those numbers are likely to rise even more this summer as beach water comes under a new federal microscope. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will begin enforcing a 2000 revision of the Clean Water Act that requires states to monitor water quality at many more beaches and more frequently than at present - and to adopt more rigorous and uniform testing standards.
• As coastal development continues to spread in the United States, beaches may become more polluted - not just from runoff, but also from contaminated groundwater, according to new research. That finding, if confirmed by further research, could provide new insights into how to battle beach pollution, which has baffled researchers up to now. In one survey, nearly two-thirds of beach closures and advisories in 2002 were chalked up to "unknown sources."
In fact, the entire subject of beach pollution remains murky, largely because of a lack of data. For example: Of the 5,792 beaches in 30 states (including the Great Lakes states) tracked by the EPA, just 56 percent are monitored. And as of the end of April, only nine of those states had adopted the monitoring standards that EPA expects to impose by month's end.
So while the US has made progress in cleaning up some pollution, and its beaches remain cleaner than those of many developing nations, researchers can only guess whether - and how rapidly - the overall picture is deteriorating.
"The beach-water situation nationally is probably worse or maybe the same, but it's unlikely to be getting better," says Mark Gold, executive director of Heal the Bay, a Santa Monica group that independently grades California beach waters. "The key reason is the nation's lack of progress in dealing with runoff and nonpoint-source pollution," such as lawn fertilizer, pet waste, and other pollutants.
Page 1 of 4