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He founded a church and stirred a young nation

A rich, detailed portrait of Joseph Smith, father of Mormonism.

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How did a young man from a poor farm family - who as a boy received minimal education and had little religious background - come to found a church that today boasts millions of members worldwide?

A religious leader for only 14 years until his assassination in 1844, Joseph Smith drew thousands during his lifetime to his vision of a theocratic New Jerusalem in the American heartland. Possessing what one critic called a genius for "religion making," Smith wrote new scriptures and created a complex institution that has long survived his death.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints celebrates its 175th anniversary this year, and on December 23, the 200th anniversary of Smith's birth.

In Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling, historian Richard Bushman, professor emeritus at Columbia University and a practicing Mormon, fashions a fascinating, definitive biography of the rough-hewn Yankee who stirred controversy from the start.

Bushman's intimate, 740-page portrait explores all the corners of controversy but does not resolve them, suggesting that - given the nature of the man and his story - such resolution is never likely to occur. An honest yet sympathetic portrayal, the book is rich in its depiction of developing Mormonism.

During an era of revivals and religious ferment, Smith saw himself as a major prophet and revelator - a restorer of the one true church. Despite a story that appeared fantastical to many, Smith's teaching caught the interest of others in search of a faith different from that offered by the churches of the time.

As a youth, Smith engaged with family and friends in magic and treasure-digging. He also prayed to know which church to attend. He said later that he was then told by God and Jesus that the existing churches were in apostasy.

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