What Russia's soldiers suffered
Fresh research shapes a fascinating yet also devastating portrait of Russian infantrymen in World War II.
In recent years, the "Greatest Generation" has been celebrated in books, film, and television documentary. American veterans of World War II, their numbers dwindling, make pilgrimages to the beaches they stormed, the cemeteries where they left friends, the sites of horror and glory.
Historians have had much to work with. Official documents and photos, letters and diaries, interviews with those who were young men at Normandy or Anzio or Guadalcanal.
Not so with the war in Europe's eastern front.
Josef Stalin and his successors made sure the story of Soviet history in the war was crafted and protected in a way that served their political purposes. Great monuments were built, but documents were sealed. Pensioned soldiers and their families were honored as "heroes," but they were kept from telling of experiences that might have deviated from the official line - especially anything traumatic. Historians, Russian and foreign, were prevented from working independently.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union that's changing, and Catherine Merridale's Ivan's War: Life and Death in the Red Army, 1939-1945 is an example of the extraordinary scholarship that has begun to result from this new openness. More than that, it's a powerful, intimate, and sometimes heartbreaking portrait of the archetypal Russian infantryman who suffered greatly, often at the hands of his own countrymen.
In researching this thoroughly footnoted, and highly readable book, Ms. Merridale (professor of contemporary history at Queen Mary, University of London) traveled to many of the major battle sites, including Kerch, Kiev, Kursk, and Sevastopol. She gained access to military and secret police archives. And she interviewed more than 200 veterans, many of whom shared their private letters and diaries.
The numbers of those who fought the German Wehrmacht and were lost are staggering: Between 1939 and 1945 more than 30 million men and women were mobilized into the armed forces, more than 8 million of whom died from starvation, disease, and the violence of combat. Twice as many civilians as soldiers died, and 25 million were left homeless.
The early years of the war were the worst. By early 1942, 2.7 million had been killed in action and nearly 3 million captured. The Red Army had to be virtually rebuilt twice during the war.