On the 80th anniversary of their deaths, a thoughtful new look at the Sacco-Vanzetti trial.
Exactly 80 years ago, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed for a robbery and double murder in South Braintree, Mass., that they may not have committed. The crime and trial quickly became a sort of legal litmus test: Your view of it depended on whether you saw the men as hardened criminals who killed to support anarchy and terrorism or as simple, hard-working immigrants with unpopular beliefs who were railroaded. Time has passed, but the controversy has never disappeared.
Bruce Watson's new book Sacco and Vanzetti: the Men, the Murders, and The Judgment of Mankind tells the story of this incident starting with the decision of the two protagonists to immigrate to America, through the trial and execution, and concluding with an assessment of what one scholar has called "the case that will not die." This careful and thoughtful volume is a valuable addition to the extensive literature on this landmark case.
There was no dispute that a crime had been committed. There were plenty of witnesses, and it happened in broad daylight. But there was little agreement about anything else. Watson writes: "It had all been over in a minute. One crime had been committed. One car had picked up the bandits. One bandit had fired from its passenger seat. But as the crowd began to babble, a kaleidoscope of impressions swirled around the scene."
The trial was a circus. Several witnesses changed their stories, evidence was tampered with, and the defense attorney managed to do little except offend the presiding judge. After a trial that lasted six-and-a-half weeks and involved 167 witnesses, it took the all-white, all-male jury just three hours to find Sacco and Vanzetti guilty. They were quickly sentenced to death.
Watson leaves little doubt that Judge Webster Thayer was biased against the defendants. He ruled his courtroom with an iron hand and off the bench had a habit of making shocking comments. Speaking privately, he once said, "These two men are anarchists; they are guilty…. They are not getting a fair trial but I am working it so that their counsel will think they are."