It is obvious the Army Corps of Engineers could not let such a disaster happen again. They have already opened the Bonnet Carre spillway, which is now bleeding muddy Mississippi waters into Lake Pontchetrain, just north of the city. And as flood waters continue to rage and the prospect of future flooding looms large for the city, New Orleans residents worried: Was such a diversion enough? But the Corps had an $18 billion trick up its sleeve.
For thousands of years, the Mississippi River has naturally writhed back and forth like a water hose, spewing muddy sediment loads first one place then another along several hundred miles of coast. These movements built up a number of major deltas along the southern Louisiana coast.
This shifting geography has gradually reoriented the course of the river. Now the river is running about as far east as it can possibly go, and it wants to writhe back west, away from New Orleans and down the Atchafalaya River Basin instead.
But in the late 1950’s, Congress passed a bill to save the port of New Orleans by making it illegal for more than a third of the Mississippi to flow down the Atchafalaya River basin. This is akin to passing a bill to hold back the tide.
Today, the equivalent of seven Niagara Falls tumbles down from the Mississippi into the Atchafalaya River, making the Atchafalaya the second largest river in the country. A gunboat patrols the area in case some barge breaks loose and crashes into the dam holding back the two torrents, which desperately want to embrace. In 1937, the dam almost broke, sending engineers screaming into the night. The dam shook so severely that coal in a nearby railroad car ignited from the vibrations. After the flood, engineers discovered the river had scoured out a 100-foot deep hole in the water at the foot of the dam.