"What you end up with is an Internet that assumes a particular kind of user, one that resembles the authors," says Mr. Csikszentmihályi. "So, in a sense, almost everyone who uses the Internet has to sort of pass as a white, 20-something, urban-dwelling kind of person."
Even in the US, this has proved to be a problem. A new study at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill., found that, among Americans, those from privileged backgrounds tend to have much higher skill levels and use the Web for more activities than those from less affluent families with equal Internet access.
"Just because people gain access doesn't mean that now they know how to use the Internet," says Eszter Hargittai, author of the report. "Even if we put a lot of effort into connecting more people – which is of course important – [the concern is that] even once people obtain access, we will continue to observe considerable variation in their skills and online behavior."
For those outside the US, crossing the digital divide may seem even more daunting. In the Middle East, since 2000, Internet use has grown faster than anywhere else in the world. Although there are more Arabs online every day and their language is the world's fifth most widely spoken, less than 1 percent of Web content is in Arabic. Within the region, Jordan has been one of the most active countries bridging the digital divide. Here the information technology (IT) sector enjoys strong support from King Abdullah II and makes up 12 percent of the nation's gross domestic product. According to StartupArabia, a website dedicated to tracking Arab tech companies, only the United Arab Emirates has surpassed Jordan in the number of start-ups.