A look back over the years at the major stages of artificial intelligence design.
The concept of artificial intelligence is as old as the ancient Greeks and as new as the robotic rover currently probing the pinkish terrain of Mars, 352 million miles from Earth. In between have come "reasoning calculators," "analytical engines," and Leonardo da Vinci's walking lion. Modern AI began with the advent of the computer.
Greek myths of Hephaestus, the god of blacksmiths and artisans, include the notion of intelligent robots.
Greek philosopher and mathematician Archytas builds a wooden pigeon whose movements are controlled by steam.
Spanish mystic and theologian Ramon Llull invents a mechanical device that tries to prove the veracity of ideas.
Clock makers use their skills to create machine-like animals. German Hans Bullmann crafts the first androids, mechanical figures that simulate people by playing musical instruments.
Mechanical toys proliferate, epitomized by this automaton doll and French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson's automated duck, which could flap its wings.
French weaver Joseph Marie Jacquard, using punch cards, creates a programmable loom. Charles Babbage, an English mathematician and engineer, builds an "analytical engine," a programmable calculating machine.