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Why scientists are baffled by a half-million-year-old human thigh bone (+video)

Scientists sequenced 400,000-year-old mitochondrial DNA, exploding the previous record for oldest DNA and introducing new questions into European and Asian history.

Scientists have discovered the oldest known genetic material ever to be recovered from an early human. They extracted mitochondrial DNA from the femur of a 400,000-year-old human ancestor in a cave known as the Pit of Bones in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain.
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With help from a new technique, a team of geneticists in Germany have mapped the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a 400,000-year-old thigh bone belonging to one of our ancient cousins. The bone is much too old to be Homo sapiens sapiens, but it also doesn't appear to be Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, our Neanderthal cousins. The previous record for the oldest fragment of DNA was set in 2006, when a team of French and Belgian researchers mapped the mtDNA of a 100,000-year-old Neanderthal tooth.

The German researchers found correlations between the ancient thigh bone and a 40,000-year-old finger bone found in the Denisova Cave in southern Siberia. That bone's DNA was distinctive enough that the team designated a new branch on the human family tree that they called the "Denisovans." But now the genetic connection between the Siberian bone and the newly-sequenced Spanish bone are prompting new questions.

“The fact that the mtDNA of the Sima de los Huesos hominin shares a common ancestor with Denisovan rather than Neanderthal mtDNAs is unexpected since its skeletal remains carry Neanderthal-derived features”, says Matthias Meyer, lead author of a paper in the current issue of Science, in a press release. 

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