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Comet ISON now an ex-comet, says NASA (+video)

After months of anticipation, Comet ISON grazed by the sun on Thanksgiving Day (Nov. 28). Something emerged on the far side, but NASA astronomers can now confirm: ISON is no longer a comet.

The comet was visible in instruments on NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, and the joint European Space Agency/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, or SOHO, via images called coronagraphs. Coronagraphs block out the sun and a considerable distance around it, in order to better observe the dim structures in the sun's atmosphere, the corona. As such, there was a period of several hours when the comet was obscured in these images, blocked from view along with the sun.
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Comet ISON sprang into public awareness shortly after its discovery, when its early brightening inspired hopes that it would blaze like the full moon. Quickly dubbed the "Comet of the Century," ISON continued its plunge from the Oort Cloud to the sun, but despite predictions, it failed to brighten much. It buzzed by Mars, where NASA's HiRISE observed it, then it passed through the orbits of all the inner planets before skimming the sun on Nov. 28. 

Scientists were riveted. Would ISON's ices melt completely in the sun's heat? Would it get drawn in by the sun's gravity? Or – as amateur astronomers everywhere hoped – would it survive, achieve its early promise, and light up the sky? 

ISON got lost in the sun's glare, ultimately passing less than 1.2 million miles from the sun's surface. Even sun-observing instruments couldn't keep track of it at the most critical moment, since they block out the brightest part of the sun to protect their instruments.

Within hours, astronomers saw something faint emerge from the other side of the sun-blocking disk. Maybe ISON hadn't broken up completely? A glowing cloud continued ISON's parabolic path before dissipating so completely that it's now indistinguishable from interstellar dust, says NASA.

"We see the comet going in, and the object formerly known as ISON emerging from the other side," joked astrophysicist Karl Battams at a meeting of astronomers last week.

The Comet ISON post-mortem

"The comet essentially eroded to nothing," explains Zdenek Sekanina, a senior research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

In fact, says Dr. Sekanina, ISON had ceased to exist as a comet even before it reached "perihelion," the moment of closest approach to the sun. So what happened to ISON, known to scientists as C/2012 S1?

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