Who are these telecommuters? And for what kinds of companies do they generally work?
An accurate picture is harder to come by than one might think. The telecommuter stereotype is of a working mom who juggles kids' needs after school and then labors late into the night to finish her work day for a tech company.
“The profile of who makes up the population of telecommuters is somewhat murky because different research entities define the term differently,” says Mr. Gajendran. “Researchers have had to triangulate and combine studies to get a picture they can understand. No one alone sums it all up in a satisfying way.”
A profile by Telework Research Network, an independent research firm that generally backs flexible workplaces, paints the typical telecommuter as a 49-year-old, college-educated, salaried, nonunion employee in a management or professional role, earning $58,000 a year at a company with more than 100 employees.
Gajendran and MaryAnne Hyland, associate professor of resource management at Adelphi University in Garden City, N.Y., fill in other details. They say telecommuters are typically between 35 and 54, slightly more likely to be male than female, and more likely to be white than Hispanic or black. About a third of telecommuters live in households with annual incomes of $100,000 or more, they add.
Though the overall number of telecommuters is relatively small, the rate of growth of telecommuting appears to be picking up. The number of workers who regularly telecommute grew 61 percent from 2005 and 2009, according to a 2011 Telework study, “The State of Telework in the US: How individuals, businesses and government benefit.” Telecommuters will total 4.9 million by 2016, a 69 percent increase from now, the study forecasts.