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Busing to end in Wake County, N.C. Goodbye, school diversity?

For a decade, Wake County, N.C., used busing to avoid having schools with high concentrations of students from poor families. Its school board voted this week to abandon its income-diversity goal in favor of a return to neighborhood schools.

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Raleigh, N.C., police officers try to quell chanters shouting, 'No resegregation in our town. Shut it down,' during a meeting of the Wake County School Board Tuesday, March 23. During a tense marathon meeting, the school board voted to stop busing students to achieve diversity.

Travis Long/Raleigh News and Observer/NEWSCOM

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The Wake County, N.C., school district has decided to reverse its income-based integration plan, which served as a national model for a decade as school systems sought alternatives to traditional racial-balancing plans.

With protesters shouting in the background, the school board in Raleigh voted 5-to-4 to develop attendance zones closer to students’ homes. Advocates say the new plan will spare children long bus rides, while opponents claim it will lead to racial “resegregation” and more concentrated poverty in certain schools.

The decision is part of a national trend in which school districts are backing off active attempts to bring about diversity, says Gary Orfield, co-director of the Civil Rights Project at the University of California, Los Angeles.

The South had the most racially integrated schools in the nation after the civil rights efforts of the late 1960s, but “it’s going backwards fast now,” Mr. Orfield says.

Many districts looked to Wake County’s experience with income-based assignments after a 2007 US Supreme Court decision struck down voluntary desegregation plans that rely too heavily on race. Adopted in 2000, the county's plan set a goal for all schools to have no more than 40 percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch (a proxy for poverty). By 2005-06, the school district has achieved that goal in 85 of 116 elementary and middle schools.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) has led the opposition to the move in Wake County, which has been brewing since last fall, when voters elected a majority of board members who wanted to end the socioeconomic busing policy.

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