"There's a lack of incentive in higher education to be cost-efficient," says Richer Vedder, director of the Center for College Affordability and Productivity, a think tank on higher education finance. Constituencies that usually matter most to college administrators are faculty, alumni, and, to a lesser extent, students, he notes. Parents, who are often footing the bill, don't factor in much, and even many students with loans are not yet thinking about the cost.
Alumni want new stadiums and good football teams; faculty want good salaries and a low teaching load; students want nice dorms and facilities – all things that cost money.
Even the college rankings in U.S. News & World Report can help drive up costs. Colleges can move up in the rankings by paying professors more, having more alumni who contribute to the school, and attracting better students.
"How do you get good students?" asks Mr. Vedder. "You bribe them [with things like merit scholarships and fancy facilities]. There is a sort of academic arms race. To get to the top, you have to spend. You're not only raising money to keep people happy on campus, but also to improve reputation."
Marks, for one, knew he was taking on loads of debt when he opted to attend Carnegie Mellon, where tuition is almost $45,000 a year. But he thought the degree would be worth it. Now he's in a 30-year repayment program in which his monthly payment is $1,300 – and will only grow over time. "I kind of knew what was going on," Marks says about his borrowing decision. "But you don't really think about what it actually means to have a house worth of debt, on a higher interest rate than a mortgage, until you're getting close to graduating and thinking about having to repay [it]."
The recent recession has contributed to soaring college costs, too. Public schools, in particular, have been hit by budget cuts from state legislatures – and they are making up for much of it by raising tuition. In many instances, public colleges now get more money from tui-tion dollars than from the state – a reversal of the traditional setup.