The administration's proposal would create a visa for those in the country illegally and allow them to become legal permanent residents within eight years. The proposal also requires businesses to know the immigration status of their workers and adds more funding for border security.
It drew immediate criticism from Sen. Marco Rubio, R-Fla., one of the eight lawmakers searching for a comprehensive plan.
"If actually proposed, the president's bill would be dead on arrival in Congress, leaving us with unsecured borders and a broken legal immigration system for years to come," said Rubio, who has been a leading GOP spokesman on immigration.
Many of the details in the administration's draft proposal follow the broad principles that Obama previously outlined. But the fact the administration is writing its own alternative signaled Obama wants to address immigration sooner rather than later and perhaps was looking to nudge lawmakers to move more quickly.
The tactic could complicate the administration's work with Congress.
David Axelrod, who was a senior adviser to Obama's re-election campaign, acknowledged Monday that it likely was a mistake for news of the Obama immigration plan to be made public.
Appearing on MSNBC, Axelrod said in an interview from Chicago that "the mistake here was to disseminate it so widely within the administration" and said he believes that White House officials would "take it back" if they could.