Reasearch: ILANA KOWARSKI, Graphic: JULIE FALLON and RICH CLABAUGH/STAFF
1968: Three weeks of student demonstrations led to general strikes by two-thirds of the working population, forcing the conservative government of Charles de Gaulle to call immediate elections (which de Gaulle won). Though a political failure, the revolt is credited with social liberalization.
1974: The "Carnation Revolution" - a bloodless one-day military coup with broad civilian support - overthrew a right-wing dictator and laid groundwork for a new constitution and civilian rule within a year. Freedom House ranks it a democracy among the most free in the world today.