Since 2011, the two countries have rekindled the peace talks, taken steps to bolster trade and signed a visa agreement to make cross-border travel easier, but New Delhi's frustration with Pakistan's failure to bring those responsible for the attack to justice has complicated efforts to mend relations.
The attacks were also a major embarrassment for India's security establishment, which failed to stop a small group of gunmen who entered Mumbai on a dinghy from running roughshod over the police and elite security forces for three days.
Indian authorities faced public pressure to execute Kasab quickly, and the government fast-tracked the appeal and execution process, which often can take years or even decades.
Union Home Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde said the ministry sent Kasab's mercy plea to Mukherjee on Oct. 16 and he rejected it on Nov. 5.
Indian Foreign Minister Salman Khurshid said the government had attempted to inform Pakistani officials of the impending execution, but a fax sent to Pakistan's foreign office went unanswered. He said the government had also informed Kasab's next of kin.
Indian officials said Kasab was buried at Yerwada Central Jail, where he was executed. Some of India's most famous freedom fighters including Mohandas Gandhi served time there.
News of the execution provoked little immediate comment in Pakistan. Pakistan foreign office spokesman Moazzam Ali Khan said Kasab's family had not approached authorities about bringing his body home.