"The big change that Odierno is going to need to come to grips with is, 'OK, Petraeus and I, we refashioned the force to do basically low-intensity conflict … now we've got to transition over toward a series of more like peacekeeping operations,' " says Kenneth Pollack, director of research at the Brookings Institution Saban Center for Middle East Policy in Washington.
For his part, Odierno, who describes himself philosophically "very close" to General Petraeus, acknowledges that the challenges and issues ahead will be different from those he encountered during previous tours of duty.
"Today Iraq is a different country from the one I encountered in 2004," he told attendees at the change of command ceremony. He later told reporters, "We're in a fragile state, but I want to build it into a stable state."
The problems facing Odierno include the more than 4 million war refugees and dealing with the community policing organization known as the Sons of Iraq (SOI), says Dr. Pollack. If refugees cannot find homes and the SOI isn't properly monitored, they may create security issues for Iraq once again.
The SOI began as part of the Anbar Awakening, the movement of anti-Al Qaeda Sunni sheikhs who turned against extremist elements in Anbar Province and played a role, along with the "surge" of troops and the cease-fire ordered by radical Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, in lowering violence in Iraq. However, ex-insurgents joined the US-funded corps seemingly for financial reasons. And when the US stops paying their salaries in October, many here worry they will simply be lured back into the insurgency.