THE CANDIDATES ON THE ISSUES: #2 FOREIGN POLICY; REAGAN
Soviet Union Reagan says detente with the Soviet Union "has been a one- way street." He points out that "the Soviets have violated the Helsinki Pact and discriminated against, harassed, and persecuted Jews and Christians in Russia. They invaded Afghanistan. It's time for the US to say: 'Do you want detente, or don't you? If you do, it's going to be a two-way street.'"
At the same time, Reagan says: "The pursuit of peace must remain the fundamental objective of our foreign policy."
Reagan has promised to scrap SALT II if he is elected, stating flatly: "It's a bad treaty." But he says he would "assign a high priority to strategic arms reduction" and "sit down with the Soviet Union for as long as it takes to negotiate a blanced and equitable arms limitation agreement."
But he also says the Russians "Will be far more inclined to negotiate in good faith if . . . the United States is engaged in building up its military" and that the US must restore "true essential equivalence" in military might "for our own security and for the political perceptions of our adversaries, our allies, and third world countries . . . .Once we have the programs to reverse the trends now in favor of the Soviet Union, we must strive for arms limitation agreements that will further that security."
The Republican platform states the party's opposition to "the transfer of high technology to the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. The Middle East
"The central objective of American Middle East policy should be to prevent the extension of Soviet influence or domination over any nation or group of nations," Reagan says. "The crucial element in American policy is the fate of Israel." The nation, he says, "by virtue of its military power, geographical location, and uncompromising willingness to defend its security interests," is the "ultimate deterrent to the extension of Soviet hegemony into the Mideast."
Reagan's stance on the Arab-Israel relations is unequivocally pro-Israeli. He denounces the "terrorist" Palestine Liberation Organization and suggests that a home for Palestinian refugees be established in Jordan. He cites "basic ambiguities" in the Camp David agreement, particularly the commitment to autonomy for the Palestinians on the West Bank. And he calls for an undivided Jerusalem under Israeli control, "with continuing free access for all." However, he says his administration would abide by UN Resolutions 242 and 338, which recognize Israel's sovereignty but call for the return of occupied territories to the Arab states.Reagan has asserted that, as president, he would suspend US contributions to the UN if the General Assembly voted to oust Israel.
To protect the interests of the US and its allies in the Gulf area, Reagan would "establish a [military] presence . . . . Even with the superiority the Soviets now have, I don't believe they are ready to risk a confrontation with us." Asia and Africa
A longtime supported of the Chinese regime on Taiwan, Reagan was opposed to severing official diplomatic relations with that government as part of the "normalization" of relations with Peking. However, he has retreated from the position that the US should restore formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan.
In regard to sticky US trade relations with Japan, Reagan has promised to apply "antidumping" law to protect the American steel industry and says his administration would negotiate with the Japanese to reduce auto imports.
Republican positions on Korea include encouragement of the new regime in South Korea to "expand political participation and individual liberties." The GOP platform promises not to cut the number of US troops there any further.
The platform says, in part: "The Republican Party supports the principle and process of self-determination in Africa. . . . . We pledge our strong opposition to the effort of the Soviet Union and its militant allies to subvert this process. Soviet bases, . . . Cuban troops, and Soviet-bloc subversion are unacceptable . . . . We must remain open and helpful to all parties, whether in the new Zimbabwe, in Namibia, or in the Republic of South Africa. A Republican administration will not endorse situations or constitutions . . . which are racist in purpose or in effect. It will . . . press for genuine progress in achieving goals consistent with American ideals." The Americas
Reagan is an outspoken critic of the Panama Canal treaties. He has not, however, indicated that, as president, he would try to abrogate or revise them. The Republican platform, noting that the treaties give the US primary responsibility for protecting and defending the canal, pledges "to ensure that the Panama Canal remains open, secure, and free of hostile control."
Reagan says the Carter administration has been "woefully lacking" in its response to Soviet-backed subversion in the Caribbean and communist activity in Central America. Cuba, he charges, is helping make the Caribbean into a "Red lake." He has been particularly critical of the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, and the GOP platform says that "we oppose the Carter administration aid program for the government. However, we will support the efforts of the Nicaraguan people to establish a free and independent government."
Reagan would "initiate a program of intensive economic development with cooperating countries in the Caribbean."
His campaign aides say Reagan would not favor military or right-wing regimes, but would promote democracy while being realistic about the political progress in various Latin American nations. They say a Reagan administration would use "private diplomacy" to promote human rights in the Americas rather than public pressure in the Carter style.
Reagan has proposed a "North American accord" between Canada, Mexico, and the US. NATO
The Republican platform says: "NATO serves the vital interest of the entire Western world, and over the years we have continued to give the alliance our undiminished and bipartisan support." But, it continues, "Republicans deplore the current drifts toward neutralism in Western Europe. . . . A Republican administration, as one of its highest priorities, . . . will ensure that the United States leads a concerted effort to rebuild a strong, confident alliance fully prepared to meet the threats and the challenges of the 1980s. . . .
"The NATO nations have too often cut back or delayed essential defense programs and too often placed excessive hopes in arms control negotiations, while the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact has been transformed into the world's most powerful offensive military force."
The GOP also calls for integration of Spain into NATO
On other matters involving US-European cooperation, the platform says: "We have seen confusion in the fields of trade, fiscal, and energy policies. . . .Republicans are concerned that . . . Carter administration actions have increased allied temptation to conduct independent diplomacy and to seek accommodation in the face of pressure from the Soviet Union. In this regard, we . . . reject unilateral moratoriums on the deployment by the US and NATO of theater nuclear weapons."