May Day becomes protest day
Solidarity spokesmen say they plan another illegal march Monday in a further challenge to Poland's military authorities following Saturday's defiant May Day demonstration in which 50,000 supporters of the suspended union movement marched through Warsaw's Old Town center.
A similar march was held at Solidarity's birthplace at the Baltic port of Gdansk. The marches coincided with a formal parade staged by the PolishCommunist Party. Police made no attempt to stop the two demonstrations, but it remained to be seen how far authorities would allow the public expression of opposition which broke several key martial law regulations.
Monday's demonstration was called to mark pre-communist Constitution Day, which commemorates Poland's Constitution of May 3, 1791, the first liberal constitution in modern Europe.
In Moscow, President Leonid Brezhnev and other top Kremlin leaders whose health had been the topic of speculation recently appeared together in Moscow's Red Square for the traditional May Day parade. Alongside Mr. Brezhnev were Party Secretary Andrei Kirilenko, reappearing after a two-month absence, and the Politburo's oldest member, Arvid Pelshe, who has also been out of the public eye for some time. Party Secretary Konstantin Chernenko, heir-apparent to Mr. Brezhnev, also attended.
China observed May Day with exhortations to the people to be more disciplined and obedient to the Comunist Party and to stop ridiculing the party's model workers.
May Day rallies turned into protests in a number of countries, including West Germany, Israel, and India. In the United States, a parade marking Poland's Constitution Day attracted 12,000 marchers and 100,000 spectators in Chicago, which has the biggest Polish community outside of Poland. Chicago Mayor Jane Byrne and Illinois Governor James Thompson spoke to the crowds.