Contra leaders: who are they?
Arturo Cruz: An economist jailed twice by Nicaragua's former dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle, Mr. Cruz served variously as president of the Central Bank, member of the Sandinista governing junta, and ambassador to the United States in the first two years after the 1979 revolution. He had been the leading opposition presidential candidate in 1984, but withdrew from the elections, complaining that the electoral process was not free or fair. Cruz, regarded as a moderate conservative, is widely respected as a decent man. But critics say he lacks the political skills required to make the contras a more effective fighting and political force. Lives in Miami. Adolfo Calero: Adolfo Calero: A former manager of the Nicaraguan Coca-Cola plant, Mr. Calero has been identified by the Sandinistas and by US officials as an agent of the US Central Intelligence Agency. A leader of the Conservative Party in Nicaragua, he opposed the Somoza dictatorship, but was also involved in US plans in the last days before the 1979 revolution to install a non-Sandinista government. Calero joined the leadership of the main contra military group, the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN), in 1983 and played a leading role in raising funds from right-wing US groups and individuals. He is regarded as a harder line conservative than the two other UNO leaders. Lives in Miami. Alfonso Robelo: A chemical engineer, Mr. Robelo came to political prominence as founder of the Nicaraguan Democratic Movement, one of the middle-class anti-Somoza organizations that made up a broad alliance with the Sandinistas in the run-up to the revolution. Robelo was a member of the first revolutionary governing junta, but resigned in 1980. He then joined Sandinista defector Ed'en Pastora G'omez in 1982 to form the political-military group, the Democratic Revolutionary Alliance (ARDE), charging that the Sandinistas were Marxist-Leninist totalitarians. Lives in San Jos'e, Costa Rica. Enrique Berm'udez: A US-trained colonel in Somoza's army, the National Guard, Mr. Berm'udez is now military commander of FDN forces, and known to his men by the nom de guerre ``Comandante 3-80.'' Berm'udez commanded the Nicaraguan battalion sent to the Dominican Republic after the 1965 US invasion there. He was military attach'e at the Nicaraguan Embassy in Washington at the time of the Sandinista revolution. Berm'udez took over control of FDN's predecessor, the ``15th September Legion'' in 1980. He was valued at that time by the FDN soldiers for his contacts in the US Army and government. Lives in Honduras.