Two views of Angola's problems
Government says country is besieged from outside Highlights of comments by Pedro de Castro Van-Dunem ``Loy,'' Angola's minister of state for production, and Fernado Franca Van-Dunem, minister of justice, from a Monitor interview with Minister Loy and a subsequent press breakfast in Washington with both ministers:
South Africa. Mr. Loy: ``There is an independent country, Angola, part of which is occupied by another country, South Africa.'' This invasion is part of South Africa's policy ``of attempting to create a constellation of states at which South Africa is in the center.'' The Cubans were invited to defend Angola from South Africa, and they have not gone out of Angolan territory.
Savimbi. Mr. Van-Dunem: ``The country which tries to destabilize us is South Africa. Without South African support ... Savimbi would not last long.'' Loy: Savimbi cooperated with the Portuguese before independence and then became a ``complementary army'' of South Africa, which participates in all actions of UNITA (antigovernment force).
Refusal to talk. Both ministers reject any possibility of negotiating with Savimbi and deny reports of African offers to mediate. Van-Dunem: ``Angola is the legitimate government.... Savimbi has never been part of any government.'' Loy: UNITA's objective ``is to liquidate all the population of Angola.''
Aid to UNITA. Loy: All outside aid to UNITA must be cut off and all South African troops out of Angola before a troop-withdrawal accord can go into effect.
Reintegration. The ministers say the MPLA (Angolan government) is willing to reintegrate UNITA members into government and society once the ``foreign influence'' is gone. Loy: ``The people of UNITA are not to blame for the objectives of that organization.''
Future government. Loy: The MPLA will keep a ``one-party state.'' Angolan society is ``still weak''; it is ``not possible now to try to create a multiparty system.''
Rebel leader Savimbi sees a land divided within
Highlights of comments by Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA, from a Monitor interview and a press luncheon in Washington:
Purpose of visit. ``I have come here to ask for help in bringing peace to our country.... After 13 years of civil war we are all tired'' and neither side can defeat the other. Superpower cooperation and pressure on South Africa and the Angolan government make the reconciliation in Angola more possible than in many years.
Willingness to talk. ``On our side we are ready to meet with them [the Angolan government] and talk'' without preconditions - even in Washington this week. The aim is a cease-fire and creation of a national-unity government that can oversee nationwide elections. Savimbi says he will respect the results of any vote.
South Africa. Savimbi says he is not fighting South Africa's war but his own battle for freedom in Angola, which he has waged since the 1960s. Outside support is necessary, given Cuban and Soviet aid to the MPLA. Savimbi says he opposes apartheid; supports independence for Namibia; and has privately lobbied for freeing South African black leader Nelson Mandela.
MPLA and UNITA. Savimbi argues that the MPLA is more dependent on the Cubans than he is on South Africa. He says UNITA could not have survived if it did not have popular support.
``For 13 years the MPLA has failed to defeat UNITA and now it is using labels to run away from making peace in Angola.'' There have been contacts between MPLA officials and UNITA, he says, but the MPLA remains afraid of negotiations or a national election, which has never been held in Angola.
US role. Savimbi made no appeals for more US financial aid, but, when asked, said US covert assistance should not be ended until Soviet and Cuban aid to the Angolan government is ended. He said US supplies have allowed him to survive against otherwise superior weaponry.