Details of Treaty Between Soviet Republics
THESE are the main points of the new draft union treaty intended to replace the treaty signed on December 1922 that established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Fundamental principles: The new treaty creates a Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, dropping the word ``socialist.'' Each republic is a ``sovereign state and enjoys full authority over its territory.'' It calls for protection of human rights, creation of civil society, and democracy based on popular representation and law. All forms of property, including ``property of citizens and their associations,'' are guaranteed.
Division of powers: The republics delegate the following powers to the union government: defense of the union, definition and protection of borders, organization of the armed forces, declaration of war, foreign policy, regulation and coordination of foreign economic activity of republics, and customs. In coordination with republics, the union executes common policy on: finance, credit, and monetary policy based on a single currency; creation and use of gold and diamond reserves; fuel, energy, transportation and communication systems; administration of defense industries, space research, social security.
The republics have the right to own their land and natural resources and collect taxes for their budgets. Republican laws have priority except over areas delegated to the union. A Constitutional Court will settle disputes between republics or between a republic and the union. The delegation of powers cannot be changed without the consent of all the republics.
Structure of government: The president has supreme executive power, heads the Cabinet, represents the union in foreign relations, and is commander in chief. He and a newly established vice president are directly elected by a majority of votes in the union and in most of the republics.
The Federation Council, consisting of the president, vice president, and heads of all republics, determines directions of internal and external policy.
The Supreme Soviet has two houses: one formed by republics; the other, by direct vote.