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The Kremlin, although wooing Iran, seems concerned that the Iranians might follow up recent battlefield gains by pushing into neighboring Iraq.

Arab diplomats here say this is the impression conveyed by recent private comments from Soviet officials. Some diplomats are assuming that Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Ivan Arkhipov will urge Iranian restraint in his current visit to Syria.

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The assumption among both Arab and Western diplomats here is that Moscow fears an Iranian counterinvasion of Iraqi territory would greatly complicate Soviet policy and possibly give the Americans an opportunity to strengthen greatly their position in the Arab world by helping the Iraqis.

Iraq is linked to the Soviets by a formal friendship treaty, but relations between the two countries have been strained for several years. The Soviets have withheld military backing from Iraq, with officials here explaining privately that the Iraqis had not consulted with Moscow under the terms of the friendship treaty before ordering troops into Iran.

Meanwhile, the Soviets have sought closer relations with Iran following its overthrow of the Shah.

The Soviets have striven to avoid souring relations with either of the combattants and have declared neutrality, warning that only ''imperialism'' stood to benefit from the conflict.

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