As passengers and pilots see it, some encounters over the last year have been too close for comfort. Consider these recent examples:
On Mar. 31, the captain of a Northwest Airlines jumbo jet taking off from Minneapolis, managed to get in the air and raise the plane's landing gear just in time to clear, by a 100 feet, another DC-10 from his own company that had been directed to cross the runway.
On a Sunday afternoon in late June, the pilot of an American Airlines 727 suddenly dipped the plane sharply over Lake Michigan to avoid hitting a twin-engine private plane flying 50 feet away.
On Sept. 24, an Eastern jet aborted a takeoff at Washington's National Airport and rolled to a halt just short of the Potomac River when the pilot spotted a helicopter that had been cleared to cross his departure path.
Reports of near collisions in the air and on the ground in the United States are on the increase.
By the end of November pilots had reported 808 near collisions -- more than two a day. Most (709) occurred along the airways where the figures exceeded last year's total by 120 incidents. There were also 22 more near collisions on airport runways and taxiways reported this year through November.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) attributes much of this year's increase to improved pilot reporting. The agency checks out each incident to determine if it is critical (within 100 feet), potentially so, or a nonhazard.
But many aviation-safety experts outside the agency view the rising number of near collision reports as a direct byproduct of increasing traffic. They are concerned that the traffic density may be outpacing the ability of pilots and air controllers to deal with it. Traffic that comes under FAA control is now 108 percent of what it was before the majority of the agency's controllers struck and were fired in 1981.
The majority of near collisions involve private planes. Many private pilots fly under visual flight rules and are often outside the airspace positively controlled by the FAA. In these regions, the prevailing rule is that pilots have responsibility to ``see and avoid'' each other. But as the speed of planes steadily increases, many aviation-safety experts and pilots say such heavy reliance on visual ability is unwise and outmoded.