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New Reproductive Technologies Create Ethical Dilemmas

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OF all the choices confronting prospective parents during the next decade, those involving reproductive technology promise to be the most complicated. ``Many ethical dilemmas are coming up for the '90s with more sophisticated technology,'' says Dr. Brian Udell, a neonatologist at Broward General Medical Center in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. ``There will be a lot more babies who will survive.''

Ten years ago, he explains, the goal of neonatologists was to save three-pound babies. Today 85-to-90 percent of two-pound babies survive, along with 40 percent of one-pound babies. ``It may even go down to a 12-ounce baby or a 10-ounce baby that is survivable,'' he says.

But saving these tiny infants carries an enormous price tag. ``Babies who are born at 23 weeks can go through half-a-million dollars in their neonatal time,'' says Rebecca Heikenen, a neonatal nurse in Minneapolis. ``At what point do you draw the line and say we can't afford to do that? On the other hand, if it were my own child who could benefit from some expensive high-tech procedure, I would probably want everything done.''

Mrs. Heikenen and others who work in neonatal units also express concern about the quality of life for tiny infants who survive with grave physical problems.

Ten years ago, Dr. Udell explains, if a baby was born with major defects, doctors could talk to the parents and decide whether to continue treating the infant. Today, he says, ``I wouldn't even have that conversation with the parents. I have to do everything I can to save the baby. A downside of the current medical-legal climate and the right-to-life movement in some ways has been this inability for a mother and father to control their family's destiny.''

To avoid such heart-rending dilemmas, medical experts emphasize the importance of preventing premature births.

``The answer is to start changing our whole thinking,'' says Dr. Michael Katz, an associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive sciences at the University of California in San Francisco. ``For the last 25 years we have been working on making the intensive-care nursery a better womb. We add machinery, we add doctors. But we do very little to try to make the womb a better nursery. That's what I'm trying to focus on.''

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