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Chinese Nuclear Sales

Algeria, 1983-1991: Under a secret agreement, China is supplying a nuclear reactor large enough to make weapons-grade plutonium.

Argentina, 1981-1985: China sold at least 60 metric tons of heavy water to run reactors capable of making plutonium. Sold uranium concentrate (possibly 45 tons), low-enriched uranium hexafluoride; and about 12 kilograms of 20 percent enriched uranium as fuel for research reactors.

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Brazil, 1984: Sold uranium enriched to 3 percent, 7 percent, and 20 percent in three shipments totaling 200 kilograms.

India, 1982-1987: Sold at least 130 tons of heavy water through Alfred Hempel, a West German broker.

Iran, 1985-1990: Under a secret cooperation agreement, trained several Iranian nuclear technicians in China, and may have supplied technology for reactor construction. May have contracted to sell a research reactor.

Iraq, 1989-1990: Helped Iraq manufacture special magnets for stabilizing ultra-high-speed centrifuges for enriching uranium. Agreed, in violation of United Nations trade embargo, to sell seven tons of lithium hydride, which can be used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons.

North Korea, 1950s-1960s: Trained North Korean scientists in nuclear technology.

Pakistan, 1983-1989: Supplied a reliable bomb design, enabling Pakistan to make a warhead weighing less than 400 pounds. Reportedly supplied enough highly enriched uranium for two atomic bombs. Aided Pakistan's efforts to enrich uranium at the Kahuta, Pakistan plant. Sold tritium gas capable of boosting the yield of fission bombs. Provided special magnets for centrifuges at Kahuta plant, which produces nuclear weapon fuel. May have scheduled a nuclear test for Pakistan in 1989 at its Lop Nor testing grou nd. Agreed to supply a 300 Megawatt nuclear power station despite an international nuclear supply embargo.

South Africa, 1981: Sold 30 tons of 2.7 percent and 30 tons of 3 percent enriched uranium through Alfred Hempel.

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Syria, Feb. 1992: Syria indicated intent to import small research reactor from China. Source: Compiled from Carnegie Endowment and Wisconsin Project.

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