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If quasars could talk: a telescope to help tell their stories

Infrared observatory, set to launch this Monday, may yield insights into universe.

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After a four-month delay, the US is set to loft the last in a set of orbiting observatories that are revolutionizing humanity's understanding of the universe.

If all goes as planned, Monday morning, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the one-ton Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) from Florida's Kennedy Space Center. It's the final piece of NASA's Great Observatory series, which includes the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. [Editor's note: The original version of this article gave the wrong date for the planned launch of the one-ton Space Infrared Telescope Facility.]

Operating at infrared wavelengths, the $1.19-billion observatory is expected to lift the veil of dense dust and gas that obscures the earliest birth throes of stars and planets. In addition, researchers say they'll track the evolution of galaxies from the universe's earliest epochs; study cold, dark clouds of dust and gas that breed stars and solar systems; and uncover the nature of the debris that orbits the sun beyond Pluto and is thought to be detritus left over from the solar system's formation.

SIRTF's greatest contribution, however, may come as its data are analyzed alongside results from the other observatories, covering different wavelengths of light.

"We gain an enormous amount by studying objects over a broad range of wavelengths," says Charles Beichman, chief scientist for astronomy and physics at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

For example, SIRTF will likely bring leaps in quasar knowledge, notes Belinda Wilkes, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass.

Quasars "are the brightest sources in the universe and they're bright at many wavelengths," from radio waves through gamma rays. "But to get the full picture ... we need to look in the infrared - one of the biggest holes in our knowledge."

Quasars' brilliance is believed to be driven by supermassive black holes at the center of distant young galaxies. As matter falls into the black holes' gravitational grasp, it collides with other in-falling matter, radiating energy. But that region of collision, known as the accretion disk, is relatively tiny - and, when appearing edge-on to astronomers, is hard to spot in visible and ultraviolet wavelengths.

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