India's freedom of information act is allowing ordinary citizens to clear streets and fight graft.
Bhaskar Prabhu is neither a powerful bureaucrat, nor an influential politician. Yet this civilian activist, working to clear a path for pedestrians in the Dadar area of central Bombay, has stopped vendors with unlicensed stalls from blocking public streets and walkways.
All he had to do was to use the Maharashtra Right to Information Act to demand a list of licensed stalls from the civic authorities. As soon as the list was furnished to him, he took the authorities head-on and demanded action against stalls that weren't on the list. Now illegal stalls are routinely cleared out by civil authorities, handing back Dadar's footpaths and sidewalks to the walking public.
"It would've been unthinkable to expect authorities to take such swift action if it weren't for this act," Mr. Prabhu says.
A similar version of this act called the Right to Information (RTI) Act came into force nationwide last month, placing India among 55 other countries to have "freedom of information" legislation. In a country where public information has always been guarded behind an iron veil of secrecy, RTI is the most important legislation since independence, say activists, because it can lead to transparency and accountability in governance.
"For the first time since India's independence from the British, ordinary people have the right to scrutinize performance of public officials and hold them answerable for their actions that they professedly take on behalf of people. This is the most powerful right ordinary Indians have at their disposal after the right to vote," says Prabhu.
Under the act, ordinary citizens can access records, documents, e-mails, circulars, and any other information held by public authority - including central and state governments, local bodies, and nongovernmental organizations. This information is to be provided free of cost for those living below the poverty line, and with a nominal fee for others.