Foreigners in Islamic schools are pressured to leave, but they may be a moderating influence.
A death in the family opened a doorway back to Islam for Imtiaz Baksh, a tall, turbaned Canadian with a prominent beard and quiet voice. Although raised as a Muslim by parents of Indo-Pakistani origin, he'd never been much of a practicing one himself until his mother passed away.
"Emptiness appears in the heart," he recalls, sitting on a carpet at a madrassah in Karachi. "In that way you can be born again."
More than 10 years ago, Mr. Baksh, his wife, and son began a journey that led them from the quiet of Alberta to the crushes of Karachi. They had opted to study Islam at the Jamia Binoria, a prominent madrassah or Islamic school, where they have remained since 2000.
Under pressure from Western governments, Pakistan has banned foreigners like Baksh from madrassahs after it was discovered that one of the London bombers had visited a Pakistani madrassah. No official deadline has yet been set for the return of foreign students, although the government claims 65 percent have already left.
Many of those who remain are Westernized Muslims who are pursuing a madrassah education as a supplement to - not a substitute for - other types of modern education. Indeed, many come with long experience in Western classrooms, and could form a bridge between Western and Islamic worldviews and systems of thought.
Jamia Binoria, founded in 1954, is one of the largest madrassahs in Pakistan, a sprawling complex where 5,000 students, including some 200 foreign students from 32 countries, squeeze into tiny rooms. The atmosphere is somber despite the tight spaces, and the students sway as they intone methodically over the Koran.
Like many Western students here, Imtiaz Baksh considers returning to the West with the evangelical mission of spreading the teachings of Islam, perhaps by opening a school in Canada. His son, 19-year-old Ejaz Ullah, intends to follow suit.
"Living there [in Canada] opened my eyes to how the world operates, how young people develop themselves. Living in a democratic country gave me an understanding of freedom of speech. A person had rights; you can say what you wanted to say and not be afraid of being taken away by the secret police, for example," says Baksh.