Israeli airstrikes killed at least five militants in Gaza Monday as it stepped up attacks.
Hamas's success in fighting a two-front war in Gaza against Israel and Fatah has given new urgency to calls in Israel for the military to retake large swaths of Gaza to clip the wings of the Islamic militants' recent ascendancy.
But after Israel's cabinet passed up proposals for a broad ground offensive in Gaza – instead opting to step up airstrikes aimed at militants – some are suggesting Israel should rethink its ban on dealing with the Islamist-led Palestinian government with a more pragmatic engagement strategy.
The factional fighting that killed more than 40 Palestinians over the last week appeared to indicate Hamas's military superiority over Fatah in Gaza. But, coupled with the collapse of a months-long truce with Israel, it's also raised concerns about the implosion of the Palestinian Authority.
"The government of Israel has been pursuing a policy for 14 or 15 months that has been ineffective: a choice between toppling Hamas or changing their ideology," says Gidi Grinstien, president of the Reut Institute, a Tel Aviv think tank. "Right now it's pretty messy and it's unclear what will come out of this confrontation, but I believe the reassessment has been essential for quite a while."
After a year of trying to isolate the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority with the help of the US and Europe by holding recognition of the Jewish state as one of three conditions for lifting the ban, Israel is moving aggressively against the Islamist militants. On Monday, Israeli airstrikes killed five militants as it continued its campaign against Palestinian rocket squads.
The fear, some observers warn, is that the Hamas-Fatah "unity" government could be the final prop of central authority in Gaza.
Israel's strategy of stepping up attacks on Hamas leaders and military targets, while inflicting punishment for a barrage of more than 150 rockets fired into southern Israel in one week, risks accelerating the power struggle within Gaza. The internecine fighting in Gaza has, for years, sapped the efficacy of Palestinian self-rule established by the Oslo accords.
But as bad as it is for Israel to do business with the Hamas-led government, observers argue, the collapse of the Palestinian Authority in Gaza would be worse.