How humans handle information has been a theme – and a concern – throughout the ages.
“The past folds accordion-like into the present,” James Gleick writes in The Information: A History, A Theory, A Flood, his sweeping survey of how humans use information and how this practice, in turn, has shaped humanity. Gleick’s book defies easy summary, but its most abiding insight is, in fact, its reminder that the so-called “Information Age” of the present has deep historical parallels dating back to the dawn of time.
Gleick concludes that information, now seen as the currency of the modern world, has always been the animating force of the planet, though in ways we have only recently begun to understand.
“We can now see that information is what our world runs on: the blood and the fuel, the vital principle,” he tells readers. “It pervades the sciences from top to bottom, transforming every branch of knowledge.... Now even biology has become an information science, a subject of messages, instructions, and code. Genes encapsulate information and enable procedures for reading it in and writing it out. Life spreads by networking. The body itself is an information processor.
Memory resides not just in brains but in every cell.... DNA is the quintessential information molecule, the most advanced message processor at the cellular level – an alphabet and a code, 6 billion bits to form a human being.”
The idea of the bit as a fundamental building block of information came from Claude Shannon, the man behind the theory of the book’s subtitle. Gleick credits Shannon with creating the conceptual framework that allowed today’s information economy to emerge.
Gleick’s treatment of Shannon is the most technically challenging part of the book. E.B. White once warned that analyzing humor was like dissecting a frog, leaving one with an array of parts that seemed only dimly related to the subject. Gleick’s narrative sometimes feels equally reductionist, particularly in the passages about Shannon, but “The Information” isn’t always or even usually concerned with dry empiricism.