The Supreme Court ruling against mandating life-without-parole sentences for young criminals assumes that children are more capable of reform than adults. This premise is based on shaky views of character development.
Evan Vucci/AP Photo
Is a child more capable of character reform than an adult?
In a string of rulings since 2005, the Supreme Court has accepted this popular perception in lessening harsh sentences for juveniles who commit crimes.
In its latest decision issued Monday, the court banned mandatory life sentences with no chance of parole for minors who commit murder. The ruling still allows such sentences. But judges and juries must first assess a minor’s capacity for reform. Only a small percentage of adolescents develop entrenched patterns of problem behavior, the court stated.
The decision follows previous ones that ended the death penalty for juveniles who kill and also life-without-parole sentences for juveniles whose crimes do not include murder.
This latest ruling again notes that youths are more open to the possibility of rehabilitation and thus should not receive harsh prison time. The justices point to the latest research on the adolescent brain, which finds that a youth’s tendency for rashness or risk taking is just a function of age.
These traits, the court finds, make teens less morally culpable for their actions. “As the years go by and neurological development occurs, his deficiencies will be reformed,” wrote Justice Elena Kagan for the majority.
The court insists that these new theories about a child’s emotional and moral states reflect “the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”
This materialist view of character development certainly helps support the high court’s decision. And youths indeed must be treated differently, if only because they are usually capable of embracing such qualities as honesty and compassion.
But this view is limited. It relies too simply on the latest interpretations of brain science, which can create a sharp line of age in judging a person’s willingness to change.