On the horizon: News from the frontiers of science
Sugar-powered cars, a downside to bird feeders, and the dark core of Omega Centauri.
Pranksters put sugar in gas tanks to foul engines and halt cars in their tracks. But a Virginia Tech scientist is developing a way to run cars on sugar.
Y.-H. Percival Zhang's "sweet engine" runs on hydrogen made from starch, a clean-burning and potentially renewable alternative to fossil fuels.
Although hydrogen fuel cells are much more efficient than combustion engines, hydrogen is difficult to transport, store, and distribute – as well as expensive to produce. But Professor Zhang's method, which he presented April 9 at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society in New Orleans, circumvents the need for transportation and storage by turning sugar into fuel in the car on an as-needed basis.
It produces three times more hydrogen than current anaerobic fermentation methods. "This is the highest energy efficiency in the world," says Zhang, an assistant professor at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Va.
The secret? A stew of naturally occurring enzymes that, at 86 degrees F., create hydrogen and CO2 from a water-sugar mixture. The process could be market-ready in 5 to 10 years, says Zhang.– Moises Velasquez-Manoff
A downside to bird feeders
Backyard bird feeders have become almost as ubiquitous as garden hoses. One result: the northern cardinal's range has grown significantly since the early 1960s. Yet scientists know little about the long-term effect the explosion in feeders is having on bird populations.