"People who used one mode of transportation - say, a car or one bus - saw their commute time double. Two modes - a subway and a bus, or walking and taking a cab - took almost three times the amount of travel time," she said.
Kaufman also calculated a "stress index." Commuters from Staten Island, one of the areas hit hardest by the storm, reported stress levels of 7 out of 10. New Jersey residents, whose rail connections to the city have been largely severed, leading to long lines and waits for buses, had a stress index of 5.67. Those in Manhattan, who mostly suffered shorter shutdowns of the subway and buses, were more relaxed at 2.97.
NO SLEEP TIL MIDTOWN
Dan Clement, an attorney with his own practice, normally travels from Montclair, New Jersey, to midtown Manhattan on New Jersey Transit trains. Since the storm, he has relied on buses, which he says take at least twice as long. He has had to wait in line for hours and plans his exit from the city strategically.