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In remote Western Sahara, prized phosphate drives controversial investments

Morocco's mining of the lucrative fertilizer ingredient in occupied Western Sahara has sparked charges it is violating international law – and that global customers are looking the other way.


Unemployed graduates shout slogans as they protest against unemployment and the cost of living in Rabat, Morocco, in this July 2012 file photo. Unemployment is high, and Saharawis say they are often passed over for government jobs or work in the fishing and phosphate industries, with those jobs going to immigrants from Morocco instead. The sign reads, 'We have the phosphate and sea, but we live a miserable life.'


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At the end of a pier stretching more than a mile-and-a-half into the Atlantic Ocean from Laayoune, a 75,000-ton tanker vessel rocks slowly in the ocean swells, creaking and groaning as it takes on a new load. 

A long spout pours phosphate from a conveyor belt into the ship's hold, and some of the powdery substance spills into the air like dust, coating the deck of the vessel and stinging as it blows in the strong wind. By the next day, this tanker, called the Double Rejoice, will be on its way across the Atlantic to Baton Rouge, La., where its load of phosphate will be delivered to PCS Nitrogen Fertilizer, the American subsidiary of PotashCorp, the biggest fertilizer company in the world.

Farther out to sea, two more vessels wait for their turn to load.  

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Phosphate is a key ingredient in the fertilizer that helps makes it possible to feed the world's growing population. The world's supply of phosphate is concentrated in just a handful of countries, with more than three-fourths of that in Morocco and Western Sahara. But exploiting Western Sahara's supply of this critical resource is controversial.


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