De-institutionalization of mental patients was better than locking them away, but outpatient treatment has often been inadequate and underfunded. Now a new effort is being made to coax those experiencing mental problems into programs that gently support them and foster their reintegration into society.
Mental illness is a riddle within an enigma: A person dealing with it can be unaware something is wrong, unable to describe the problem, incapable of following a course of treatment, and ashamed of the stigma that accompanies it. Often, people in this state retreat into their own world. The writer Sylvia Plath recalled that telling someone about the depression she was experiencing was “so involved and wearisome that I didn’t say anything. I only burrowed down further in the bed.”
Those who live with, care for, or come into contact with a person in the grip of mental illness can be confused as well, not knowing how to help or when or if to intervene. In an earlier age, people considered mental illness to be demonic possession. The modern medical approach has oscillated between environment and heredity in trying to explain it and has employed everything from therapeutic conversation to isolation wards, powerful psychotropic drugs to disturbing operations in an attempt to cure it.
As late as the 1990s, doctors were obtaining permission from mental patients (by definition, this was not “informed consent”) to conduct experiments in which their medication was drastically altered so that researchers could observe acute episodes of the disease. Doctors said this was the only way to understand psychosis, since a patient couldn’t describe what was going on. Patients were, in effect, being treated like human guinea pigs.
Until the late 20th century, society “solved” the problem of mental illness by forcing those dealing with it into asylums and clinics. Those who had been committed – some with severe problems but others who were merely eccentric or occasionally troublesome – were out of sight and out of mind. And while people joked about the “funny farm” and “loony bin,” the dire conditions inside asylums, when finally exposed by journalists and reformers, shocked polite society.