This week’s vote was the third time the bill has been introduced in the Uruguayan Parliament and the Senate’s final vote tally of 17 in favor and 14 against shows how divisive the issue remains. A previous bill was approved in 2008, but then-President Tabaré Vázquez vetoed it.
“Legislation is a long, long process in a region where very few countries have decriminalized abortion,” says Marta Alanis, a member of Argentina’s National Campaign for the Right to Abortion, based in Córdoba.
In Latin America, abortion is permitted only in Mexico City and Cuba. Uruguay’s larger neighbors, Brazil and Argentina, continue to ban the procedure unless the pregnancy is the result of a rape or the woman’s life is in danger. In Chile, abortion is illegal under all circumstances.
The Catholic church and the powerful pro-life lobby continue to be the major obstacles to change in legislated reproductive rights in Latin America. But politicians, too, are reluctant to tackle such a polemical hot potato.
“Abortion isn’t an issue that political parties use to differentiate themselves in Latin America,” says Ms. Pérez, the political scientist. “This isn’t an issue that forms part of their campaigns. In reality, these are ideas that tend to divide the electorate and different social groups. There isn’t a consensus.”
In contrast to divisions among politicians, however, a September survey by the polling firm CIFRA found that 52 percent of Uruguayans would vote in favor of the law if they could. Some 34 percent said they would vote against it. And the legalization movement is gathering strength in neighboring countries, including Argentina, where a parliamentary debate is likely to take place next year.